France grants citizenship to more than 12,000 foreign essential workers.

LiveUpdated Sept. 10, 2021, 2:02 p.m. ETSept. 10, 2021, 2:02 p.m. ET

India curbs crowds at religious festivals to avoid third wave as festivals in September and October are typically huge draws. But after previous celebrations were blamed for spreading the virus, some states have imposed crowd limits.

Here’s what you need to know:

Will vaccine mandates slow the pandemic? Yes, scientists say — but not immediately.

‘Have at it,’ Biden says to Republicans who’ve threatened to challenge vaccine mandates.

‘See you in court’: Republican governors express outrage and vow to fight Biden’s vaccine requirements.

President Biden’s vaccine mandate presents challenges for businesses.

The F.D.A. again warns parents not to get children under 12 vaccinated yet.

Some Indian states move to curb crowds at religious festivals.

The lead developer of the AstraZeneca vaccine says a mass booster program is unnecessary.

New York City mayor orders municipal employees back to the workplace.

A line for Covid vaccinations last month in Corona, Queens, one of the New York neighborhoods that were hit earliest and hardest in the country at the start of the pandemic.Credit…Byron Smith for The New York Times

President Biden’s new coronavirus vaccine mandates will have sweeping ramifications for businesses, schools and the political discourse in the United States. But for many scientists, the question is a simpler one: Will these measures turn back a surging pandemic?

The answer: Yes, in the longer term.

It has become clear that the nation cannot hope to end the pandemic with some 37 percent of Americans not having received a single dose of Covid vaccine, several experts said in interviews. Cases and hospitalizations are only expected to rise as Americans move indoors in homes, schools and offices in the cooling weather.

The administration’s new plan should stem the flood of infections and return the country to some semblance of normalcy over the longer term, the researchers said.

“It’s going to fundamentally shift the arc of the current surge,” said Dr. Ashish Jha, dean of Brown University School of Public Health. “It’s exactly what’s needed at this moment.”

The vaccine mandates will protect millions more people, particularly against severe disease, and relieve pressure on the health care system, said Natalie Dean, a biostatistician at Emory University. “It also sets a precedent for other organizations to make similar decisions” about mandates, she said.

But some experts cautioned that the results from the aggressive plan would take many weeks to unfold. Immunization is not an instant process — at least six weeks for a two-dose vaccine — and the administration did not emphasize the measures that work more quickly: masking and widespread rapid testing, for example.

The nation has been overtaken by the contagious Delta variant, a far more formidable foe than the original version of the virus. The optimism of the spring and early summer gave way to dread as experts observed the variant’s march across Asia and Europe, sending rates soaring even in Britain, which had successfully protected most of its older adults.

The variant became the dominant version of the virus in the United States only in mid-July, and the consequences have been beyond anything experts predicted. Reassuringly low numbers of cases and hospitalizations in June have risen inexorably for weeks to nearly 10-fold their levels. About 1,500 Americans, the vast majority of them unvaccinated, are dying each day.

The mandates arrived on Thursday after weeks of arguments from public health experts that the federal government must do much more to raise vaccination rates.

The administration’s mandates will affect nearly 100 million Americans. Among them are health care workers. The administration will require that any provider receiving Medicaid or Medicare funding impose a vaccination requirement on staff.

This is the measure mostly likely to have an immediate impact, experts said, because health care facilities are high-risk settings for transmission. And there is ample historical precedent for the decision to hold hospitals to certain standards — notably, the historical directive to desegregate patients by race, said Dr. Jha.

“We have a real dearth of leadership from health care systems that have not mandated within their own organizations, and it is imperative that the president require that patients be protected,” he added.

The requirement may drive some health care and nursing home workers, particularly many who are close to retirement age, to leave the profession. Even so, there is more to be gained than lost by the mandates, said Dr. Nahid Bhadelia, founding director of Boston University’s Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases Policy and Research.

“This is an important step to get us out of the pandemic,” she said. “The very people who are taking care of the vulnerable coming into the hospital need to be our first line of defense.”

The Labor Department will require all private-sector businesses with more than 100 employees to require that their workforces be fully vaccinated or be tested at least once a week. Employers will be required to give paid time off to employees to get vaccinated.

That move alone will affect 80 million Americans; it’s not clear how many are already vaccinated. In any event, the effects will not be immediately evident.

Given the time required between the first two doses of the vaccine, and then for immunity to build up, the effect of all these mandates is unlikely to be felt for many weeks, said Bill Hanage, an epidemiologist at Harvard University.

And Dr. Hanage was skeptical that the mandates would be successful in inoculating millions more people than have already opted for the vaccine. Some of the people who most urgently need to be protected are older adults who will not be affected by workplace requirements.

“I’m sure that the anti-vaxxers are already prepared to be up in arms about this,” he said. (Republican governors in several states have decried the mandates as unconstitutional and say they plan to file suits to stop them.)

By insisting that vaccination is the way out of the pandemic, officials in both the Trump and Biden administrations have de-emphasized the importance of masks and testing in controlling the pandemic, several experts said.

“It’s a lot quicker to put on a mask than it is to get a bunch of people vaccinated,” Dr. Hanage said.


A day after unveiling a plan to push two-thirds of American workers to be vaccinated against the coronavirus, President Biden suggested the mandates would withstand Republican efforts to defy them.CreditCredit…Pete Marovich for The New York Times

President Biden, in his first remarks since unveiling an extensive plan to push two-thirds of American workers to be vaccinated against the coronavirus, said Friday that his sweeping mandates would withstand challenges by Republicans who said they plan to defy them.

“Have at it,” said Mr. Biden, who was delivering remarks at a middle school in Washington, D.C. “I am so disappointed, particularly that some of the Republican governors have been so cavalier with the health of these kids, so cavalier with the health of their communities.”

A day earlier, the president unveiled a series of sweeping actions through a combination of executive orders and new federal rules. His administration moved to mandate shots for health care workers, federal contractors and the vast majority of federal workers, who could face disciplinary measures if they refuse.

“I do not know of any scientist out there in this field that does not think it makes considerable sense to do the six things I have suggested,” Mr. Biden added.

Republicans quickly moved to call the Biden administration’s plan unconstitutional, and a handful of Republican governors, including Brian Kemp of Georgia, have threatened to challenge the mandates in court. Ronna McDaniel, the chairwoman of the Republican National Committee, said on Twitter that her organization would sue the Biden administration.

Legal experts say that broad provisions given to the federal government and the public health emergency caused by the coronavirus could ultimately protect against legal challenges. Jennifer Shinall, a law professor at Vanderbilt University, said in an interview that the mandate for federal workers is almost certain to encounter lawsuits, but these are likely to fail.

“As long as there are provisions for workers not healthy enough to get the vaccine and probably to some extent religious accommodations,” Ms. Shinall said, “I think that the legal challenges fail.”

Initially reluctant to enact mandates, Mr. Biden is now moving more aggressively than any other president in modern history to require vaccination. There is substantial focus on keeping schools safely reopened for in-person learning: The slate of new requirements would apply to those who teach in Head Start programs, Department of Defense Schools, and schools operated by the Bureau of Indian Education. Collectively, those schools serve more than 1 million children and employ nearly 300,000 staff, according to the plan released by administration officials.

The president traveled to Brookland Middle School on Friday with Jill Biden, the first lady, a college professor who returned to teaching this week. Her return to the classroom will give one of the most influential people in the White House the ability to speak firsthand about the challenges administrators, teachers and students are facing.

“We cannot always know what the future holds, but we do know what we owe our children,” Dr. Biden said on Friday. “We owe them a promise to keep their schools open as safe as possible. We owe them a commitment to follow the science.”

A vaccination site in San Antonio in May. In a statement on Twitter, Gov. Greg Abbott of Texas said he had issued an executive order “protecting Texans’ right to choose” whether or not to be vaccinated.Credit…Tamir Kalifa for The New York Times

Republican governors across the country assailed President Biden’s aggressive moves to require vaccinations as an unconstitutional attack on personal freedoms and vowed to sue the administration to block the requirements.

The vaccine mandates Mr. Biden announced on Thursday, affecting tens of millions of private sector employees, health care workers, federal contractors and most federal workers, quickly escalated a political battle between the administration and Republican governors who have spent months fighting against mask rules and other pandemic restrictions even as infections and deaths surged in their states this summer.

Now, they are arguing that Mr. Biden’s plan is a big-government attack on states’ rights, private business and personal choice, and promise swift legal action to challenge it, setting up a high-stakes constitutional showdown over the president’s powers to curb the pandemic.

“@JoeBiden see you in court,” Gov. Kristi Noem of South Dakota wrote on Twitter. Gov. Mark Gordon of Wyoming said the new rule “has no place in America,” and said he had asked the state’s attorney general to be ready to take legal action.

In Texas, Attorney General Ken Paxton questioned President Biden’s authority to require vaccinations or weekly testing at private businesses with more than 100 workers.

“I don’t believe he has the authority to just dictate again from the presidency that every worker in America that works for a large company or a small company has to get a vaccine,” Mr. Paxton said, speaking on a radio show hosted by Steve Bannon, who served as a strategist for Donald J. Trump during part of his presidency. “That is outside the role of the president to dictate.”

Mr. Paxton, a vigorous supporter of the sweeping new antiabortion law in Texas, promised to “fight back” in a message on Twitter: “Not on my watch in Texas.”

Mr. Biden had anticipated the attacks. In announcing his plan on Thursday, he said that he would do what he could to “require more Americans to be vaccinated to combat those blocking public health,” adding “If those governors won’t help us beat the pandemic, I will use my power as president to get them out of the way.”

On Friday, Mr. Biden said that his mandates would withstand Republican challenges.

“Have at it,” said Mr. Biden, who was delivering remarks at a middle school in Washington. “I am so disappointed, particularly that some of the Republican governors have been so cavalier with the health of these kids, so cavalier with the health of their communities.”

Gov. Greg Abbott of Texas called the actions an “assault on private businesses” in a statement on Twitter. He said he issued an executive order protecting Texans’ right to choose whether or not they would be vaccinated. “Texas is already working to halt this power grab,” he wrote.

Gov. Doug Ducey of Arizona wrote on Twitter: “The Biden-Harris administration is hammering down on private businesses and individual freedoms in an unprecedented and dangerous way.” He questioned how many workers would be displaced, businesses fined, and children kept out of the classroom because of the mandates, and he vowed to push back.

Mr. Biden’s vaccination requirements will be imposed by the Department of Labor and its Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which is drafting an emergency temporary standard to carry out the mandate, according to the White House.

OSHA oversees workplace safety, which the agency is likely to contend extends to vaccine mandates. The agency has issued other guidelines for pandemic precautions, such as a rule in June requiring health care employers to provide protective equipment, provide adequate ventilation and ensure social distancing, among other measures.

The vaccine requirements drew praise from doctors and scientists who have for months stressed the urgency of increasing vaccination rates to contain the spread of the highly contagious Delta variant, which has raised the national caseload to heights last seen in January, overwhelmed hospitals in hard-hit areas and contributed to the deaths, on average, of more than 1,575 people a day.

However, the nation is so deeply polarized politically that even experts seemed split on how effective Mr. Biden’s plan would be.

Dr. Georges C. Benjamin, executive director of the American Public Health Association, said the actions might be “too little, too late,” and warned that Americans opposed to vaccination might dig in and bristle at being told what to do. The American Hospital Association was cautious, warning of the possibility of “exacerbating the severe work force shortage problems that currently exist.”

But Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University, likened the vaccination requirements to military service in a time of war.

“To date, we have relied on a volunteer army,” Dr. Schaffner said. “But particularly with the Delta variant, the enemy has been reinforced, and now a volunteer army is not sufficient. We need to institute a draft.”

Many companies were already moving toward vaccine mandates, but they were focused on white-collar workers.Credit…Eli Hartman/Odessa American, via Associated Press

President Biden on Thursday laid out a wide-ranging plan to tackle the pandemic, including requiring companies with more than 100 employees to mandate that their workers get vaccinated or face weekly testing.

The move comes as airlines, restaurants and other businesses are already feeling the pain of an economic pullback caused by the Delta variant of the virus. The new rule, which Biden instructed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to put in place by drafting an emergency temporary standard, will affect some 80 million workers.

Many companies were already moving toward mandates. In a recent Willis Towers Watson survey, 52 percent of respondents said they planned to institute vaccine mandates by the end of the year, and 21 percent said they already had such requirements.

But many of those mandates, including at companies like Goldman Sachs and UPS, have focused on white-collar workers, who tend to have higher vaccination rates. This presidential directive will help industries that are facing labor shortages, like retail and hospitality, institute a requirement on their frontline workers.

“It levels the playing field,” said Ian Schaefer, a partner at the law firm Loeb & Loeb.

Companies will now face new decisions, like whether to pick up the tab for weekly testing and how to handle religious exemptions — tasks many are already finding challenging.

A recent poll by Aon of 583 global companies found that of the employers that have vaccine mandates, 48 percent said they were allowing for religious exemptions; only 7 percent said they would fire a worker for refusing to get vaccinated.

Among unanswered questions:

How will the government gather, store and track information on employee vaccinations?

What penalties will companies face if they choose not to follow the new requirement?

Does it apply to all workers, or only those going into an office?

When will the new rules take effect?

Reaction was, unsurprisingly, mixed. The Business Roundtable and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce both welcomed the Biden administration’s actions. But Gov. Greg Gianforte, Republican of Montana, the only state to ban vaccine mandates, called the new rules “unlawful and un-American.” The Republican National Committee said it intended to sue.

Whether legal challenges will prove successful is unclear. OSHA’s emergency temporary standards pre-empt state governments’ existing rules, except in states that have their own OSHA-approved workplace agencies. (About half do.) The legal basis for a challenge is likely to be weakest in states that are directly within OSHA’s jurisdiction, like Montana, Texas and Florida.

Do you run or work at a business that will be affected by the new vaccine mandate? If so we’d like to hear from you. Email and please let us know how to reach you if we need to learn more.

Pediatric clinical trials, which will help determine the right vaccine dose for children under 12, are still underway, the Food and Drug Administration said.Credit…Christopher Capozziello for The New York Times

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is “working around the clock” to make coronavirus vaccines available to young children, it said in a statement on Friday. In the meantime, however, the agency urged parents not to seek out the shots for children who are under 12, and therefore not yet eligible for vaccination.

The agency said that it hoped vaccines would be available for young children “in the coming months,” but that it could not offer a more specific timeline. However, once it has applications from the vaccine manufacturers in hand, it will “be prepared to complete its review as quickly as possible, likely in a matter of weeks rather than months,” Dr. Janet Woodcock, the acting F.D.A. commissioner, and Dr. Peter Marks, of the agency’s Center for Biologics Research and Evaluation, said in the statement.

The currently available vaccines, none of which have been cleared for children under 12, may not be a safe or effective dose for young children, the agency noted. Pediatric clinical trials, which will help determine the right vaccine dose for children under 12, are still underway.

“Children are not small adults — and issues that may be addressed in pediatric vaccine trials can include whether there is a need for different doses or different strength formulations of vaccines already used for adults,” Dr. Woodcock and Dr. Marks.

Health officials have previously expressed concern that full approval of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for people 16 and up might prompt parents to seek, or doctors to give, the shots off-label to young children, specifically warning against the move. Children younger than 12 make up a sizable unvaccinated population in the United States.

Some vaccine manufacturers are still enrolling children in their trials and others are still giving the shots and monitoring children for potential side effects, the F.D.A. noted in its statement. The trials will follow participants for at least two months to ensure that the researchers are able to detect any adverse events. Vaccine manufacturers then have to analyze the data and then formally apply for authorization or approval from the F.D.A.

Then, the agency “will carefully, thoroughly and independently examine the data to evaluate benefits and risks,” Dr. Woodcock and Dr. Marks said.

They added, “Just like every vaccine decision we’ve made during this pandemic, our evaluation of data on the use of Covid-19 vaccines in children will not cut any corners.”

In an interview published on Friday, Ozlem Tureci, the co-founder of BioNTech and its chief medical officer, told Der Spiegel, a German news site, that “we will be presenting the results from our study on five- to 11-year-olds to authorities around the world in the coming weeks.”

Initially reluctant to enact mandates, President Biden is now moving more aggressively than any other president in modern history to require vaccination, including in schools.

The president traveled to Brookland Middle School on Friday with Jill Biden, the first lady, a college professor who returned to the classroom this week. In his remarks, Mr. Biden urged parents to get eligible children vaccinated, and promised a White House visit to the school once every student received a vaccine.

“The safest thing you can do for your child 12 and older is get them vaccinated,” the president told the crowd. “You’ve got them vaccinated for all kinds of other things — measles mumps rubella — for them to go to school, to be able to play sports, they’ve had to have these vaccinations. Get them vaccinated.”

A slate of new requirements announced this week would apply to those who teach in Head Start programs, Department of Defense Schools, and schools operated by the Bureau of Indian Education. Collectively, those schools serve more than 1 million children and employ nearly 300,000 staff, according to the plan released by administration officials.

“We cannot always know what the future holds, but we do know what we owe our children,” Dr. Biden said on Friday. “We owe them a promise to keep their schools open as safe as possible. We owe them a commitment to follow the science.”

The surge of new cases, driven by the more contagious Delta variant, ripping through unvaccinated communities has also impacted children, who are currently being hospitalized at the highest levels reported to date, with nearly 30,000 entering hospitals in August.

Children still remain markedly less likely to be hospitalized or die from Covid-19 than adults, especially older adults. But experts say that the growing number of hospitalized children, however small compared with adults, should not be an afterthought, and should instead encourage communities to work harder to protect their youngest residents.

Christopher F. Schuetze contributed reporting.

Gathering at a market in Mumbai on Thursday, a day before the start of the Ganesh Chaturthi festival.Credit…Francis Mascarenhas/Reuters

After a giant Hindu pilgrimage contributed to a catastrophic coronavirus surge this spring, some states in India are preparing for a new season of religious festivals by imposing crowd limits, as experts warn of the threat of a third wave of infections.

Several festivals taking place in September and October typically draw large crowds to temples, processions and markets. In the past, the authorities have struggled to get devotees to follow health protocols. The Kumbh Mela, which drew millions of pilgrims to the banks of the Ganges River in the spring with hardly any testing or social distancing, was widely blamed for spreading the virus, as pilgrims carried infections back to their villages and towns.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Hindu nationalist government faced criticism for allowing the Kumbh Mela to take place despite warnings that it would become a super-spreading event. Last month, Mr. Modi’s government asked states to take “suitable measures to avoid large gatherings during the coming festive season,” and to impose local restrictions if needed.

At a news conference last week, Dr. V.K. Paul, head of the national Covid-19 task force, reinforced the warning, saying: “We shall celebrate the festivals within the family — we should not have big gatherings.”

States have responded with varying measures in the days before a festival celebrating Ganesh, the Hindu elephant god. In the southwestern state of Karnataka, the government said that gatherings should be capped at 20 people, and imposed a 9 p.m. curfew. In the southern state of Tamil Nadu, officials announced a ban on large celebrations, and offered payments to idol-making potters whose businesses would be badly affected.

The western state of Maharashtra, among the worst hit by the spring Covid wave, draws some of the biggest crowds for the festival, known as Ganesh Chaturthi. In Mumbai, the state capital, the authorities issued guidelines limiting processions to 10 people, all of whom must be fully vaccinated and masked, news media reported.

Although India’s outbreak has eased, the country continues to report nearly 40,000 new cases and nearly 400 deaths daily. With Covid fatigue kicking in and the economy still flailing, many states are reluctant to impose strict restrictions. Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government has bet that a ramped-up vaccination drive can boost immunity and keep another wave from being as deadly as the last.

With localized virus surges taking place in a handful of states, Dr. Lahariya said that continued restrictions could help prevent a nationwide third wave as India’s vaccination rates remain relatively low.

After a slow start to vaccinations, India has administered more than eight million doses per day over the past week. More than 700 million doses have been given nationwide, but less than one-fifth of the country’s roughly 900 million adults are fully vaccinated, according to official statistics.

Singapore opened its borders to more countries and loosened quarantine rules for some inbound travelers on Friday. Cases have risen recently, but the number of severe cases has leveled off.Credit…Ore Huiying for The New York Times

While parts of the United States and Europe have recently tightened pandemic restrictions, and New Zealand sticks to its goal of zero coronavirus cases, a growing number of places in the Asia-Pacific region are moving in a different direction: preparing for a life with some level of Covid infections.

Leaders in Singapore, South Korea, Australia, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Hong Kong recently announced they will begin easing restrictions in the coming months, even as cases have risen in some areas.

Singapore opened its borders to more countries and loosened quarantine rules for some inbound travelers on Friday. Its daily case count on Thursday surged to over 400 for the first time since August 2020, but the number of severe cases has leveled off at an average of 23 per day this week, according to data released by Singapore’s Ministry of Health.

Hong Kong, which has maintained some of the strictest rules in the world, began allowing residents from mainland China to enter the city without the need to quarantine starting Wednesday.

In Vietnam, officials in Ho Chi Minh City, the epicenter of the country’s outbreak, said they planned to allow economic activity to resume in the city next week.

“We cannot resort to quarantine and lockdown measures forever,” Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh said last week, Reuters reported. “The Covid-19 pandemic is evolving in a complicated and unpredictable manner and may last for a long time.”

A large factor that has enabled these places to start reopening is the accelerating rollout of vaccines, which have reduced the risk of severe illness and death.

In South Korea, Son Young-rae, a health official, said the health ministry would begin incrementally reopening the country in November, when 70 percent of the population is expected to be fully vaccinated.

Officials in the Japanese government are also considering easing restrictions on travel and large gatherings in November, Kyodo News reported Wednesday. Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga said last month that nearly 60 percent of the Japanese population will likely be fully vaccinated by the end of September.

While officials remain alert in Indonesia, the country eased restrictions in the past few weeks as cases fell. Officials in Malaysia said they aim to vaccinate 80 percent of adults by the end of this month and loosen restrictions by the end of October.

And in Australia, Prime Minister Scott Morrison said that the country must abandon its zero-Covid strategy at some point. “Cases will not be the issue” once 70 percent of the population is vaccinated, he said last month. “Dealing with serious illness, hospitalization, ICU capabilities, our ability to respond in those circumstances, that will be our goal.”

Some places continued to struggle with increasing cases as vaccination drives remain slow.

Taiwan, for example, has recently seen clusters of the Delta variant grow near the capital, according to Dr. Ruby Huang of National Taiwan University. Earlier this week, the island received its first batch of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines after months of trying to strike a deal.

The governments of Malaysia and the Philippines have also faced vaccine shortages and maintained their pandemic restrictions. Earlier this summer, President Rodrigo Duterte of the Philippines said that those refusing to take the vaccine should not be allowed to leave their homes. The country has fully vaccinated 15 percent of its population, according to Our World in Data, a data tracking project.

Prof. Sarah Gilbert last year in Oxford, England.Credit…Mary Turner for The New York Times

As Britain’s vaccine watchdog deliberates whether to introduce a booster program for healthy people vaccinated against the coronavirus, Prof. Sarah Gilbert of Oxford University, who led the development of the AstraZeneca vaccine, said on Thursday that a third dose was unnecessary for most.

Prof. Gilbert said in an interview with The Daily Telegraph that booster shots should be prioritized only for the immunocompromised and elderly, because in most people, the immunity from two doses is holding up. “We need to get vaccines to countries where few of the population have been vaccinated so far,” she said. “We have to do better in this regard. The first dose has the most impact.”

The comments came as Britain’s medicine regulator recommended on Wednesday that both the Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines could be used as “safe and effective” booster doses.

The regulator’s chief executive, Dr. June Raine, said in a statement that it would now be up to Britain’s vaccines watchdog, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization, “to advise on whether booster jabs will be given and if so, which vaccines should be used.”

Britain’s health secretary, Sajid Javid, announced this month that a third vaccine dose would be offered to those with severely compromised immune systems, aged 12 and over. The vaccination committee is deliberating whether to roll out boosters more widely, ahead of a winter season that may bring a rise in the number of coronavirus cases.

Several countries have already begun giving booster shots to healthy vaccinated people, or will start this month. But ethical questions about vaccine inequalities have been raised, as these programs are limited to wealthier nations.

The World Health Organization has called for a moratorium on booster shots for healthy people until the end of September to free up vaccine supplies so that low-income nations can vaccinate at least 10 percent of their populations. But several wealthy nations have said they would not wait that long.

New York City municipal workers are required to return to work this month.Credit…Benjamin Norman for The New York Times

On Monday, as New York City students fully return to public schools, the city’s entire municipal labor force, the largest in the nation, will return to work.

Mayor Bill de Blasio has ordered the city’s more than 300,000 employees to report to work five days a week, with no general hybrid or remote option. The move will be closely watched in cities around the nation, as the mayor navigates a thicket of safety procedures.

Office workers will have to be vaccinated or submit to weekly testing, and masks will be required in most indoor communal settings. Social distancing will not be required, except where workers are interacting with the public.

The move has been met by significant resistance from unionized workers. But Mr. de Blasio has been determined to restore the city to some semblance of its prepandemic existence, and he believes that returning to work will greatly help efforts to revive the city’s economy.

The New York Times interviewed roughly a dozen city employees, and all but one disapproved of the mayor’s plan. Many worried about working in cramped, open work spaces with unvaccinated colleagues; others wondered how they would balance their child-care responsibilities, should their children have to quarantine following an in-school exposure. Several workers interviewed, who sought anonymity because they were not authorized to speak publicly, said that they or their colleagues would be likely to start looking for other jobs with more flexible work-from-home policies.

“To me, this is crazy,” Henry Garrido, executive director of the city’s largest public union, District Council 37, said in an interview. “Because at this point, there’s a new reality.”

Jeffery C. Mays contributed reporting.

Marlene Schiappa, the French minister who oversees citizenship matters, said in a statement: “These frontline workers have served the nation. It is only natural that the nation should embrace them.”Credit…Thomas Samson/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The French government announced on Thursday that it had granted citizenship to more than 12,000 foreign essential workers to thank them for their service during the pandemic.

“These frontline workers have served the nation,” Marlene Schiappa, the French minister in charge of citizenship matters, said in a statement. “It is only natural that the nation should embrace them.”

Data from the Health Observatory of the Ile-de-France region, an area that includes Paris, show that immigrants made up a quarter of essential workers who remained active during lockdowns. Of those working in the hospitals in the region, 23 percent are immigrants, though some may already be citizens.

In September 2020, France’s interior ministry reduced its legal residency requirement for citizenship applications from five years to two, and accelerated the application process for essential workers, including health care professionals, cashiers, child care providers and garbage collectors.

More than 16,000 such workers have applied for citizenship, and more than 12,000 have already received it, according to the interior ministry.

— Leontine Gallois

Alex Lee, an organizer of Cooper Square Committee, marches in New York last month with tenants who are behind on rent and facing eviction as pandemic-era protections lapse.Credit…Brittainy Newman for The New York Times

When the first wave of coronavirus spread across the country in the spring of 2020, it ravaged the economy, pushing millions of low-income tenants to the brink of eviction. Over the next year, Congress responded with a series of relief packages that included a $46.5 billion fund for emergency rental assistance.

But the promise of that help has long since given way to confusion and desperation as national eviction protections lapse and the vast majority of that rental assistance sits unspent, precipitating the precise crisis Washington had hoped to avoid.

On Friday, the House Financial Services Committee will hold a hearing to examine the shortcomings of the fund, known as the Emergency Rental Assistance Program, which had only distributed a fraction of its total funding by Aug. 1, according to the Treasury Department.

The Supreme Court’s decision to strike down the national moratorium on evictions last month has transformed a vexing administrative problem into an acute human crisis, placing at least 2 million renters in immediate danger of eviction, according to one estimate.

Federal and local officials, housing experts, landlords and tenants cited an array of problems that slowed the flow of aid: bureaucratic missteps at all levels of government, onerous applications, resistance from landlords, the reluctance of local officials to ease eligibility requirements for the poor, difficulty raising awareness that rental aid even existed, and a steep rise in rents that increased the incentive for kicking out low-income tenants.

The inoculation rate of frontline health care workers at the Department of Veterans Affairs has increased since a vaccine mandate for them was announced about seven weeks ago.Credit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

President Biden’s new coronavirus vaccination mandates prompted some backlash Thursday, but the two federal departments that already require vaccinations — as well as several states, cities and private-sector companies — say their mandates are already doing what they intended: getting more shots in arms.

Since the Pentagon announced last month that active-duty military personnel would be required to be vaccinated, the percentage of service members with at least one shot rose from 76 percent to 83 percent, according to Defense Department data.

At the Department of Veterans Affairs, which issued a vaccine mandate for its 115,000 frontline health care workers seven weeks ago, 82 percent of those employees are now fully vaccinated, up from 77 percent, and the number of shots it has given to all of its workers has more than doubled since early July, said Terrence Hayes, a spokesman for the department.

The increases elude the goal of getting virtually every employee vaccinated, although in the military, where troops have long been used to taking orders and avoiding voluntary actions, the numbers are expected to rise higher soon. Each service branch is working through its enforcement plan; once the Army makes its official announcement, those numbers are likely to increase, considering it is the largest branch of the military.

Military leaders had grown tired of vaccination rates that had stagnated for months. The low vaccination rate was threatening troop readiness, commanders said, and at the Department of Veterans Affairs, there was fear that vulnerable veterans would be sickened by workers, a concern at nursing homes and private hospitals as well.

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